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Minna No Nihongo Lesson 8 Grammar

Minna No Nihongo Lesson 8 Grammar
Lesson 8 we will learn how to use the adjective “な” and the adjective “い” along with some grammar.

1. Adjective
Adjectives are words that express the nature, the state, the emotions … of things and people.
They are used as predicates or modifiers for nouns.
Based on the variations of Japanese adjectives, they are divided into two categories: the adjective đuôi and the adjective い.

2. The noun + the adjective な / い + です
Positive :
[です] is placed at the end of a sentence ending with adjectives to show the speaker’s courtesy to the listener. The adjective tail [い] stays the same [い], the adjective [な] removes [な] and adds [です] after
For example :
ワットせんせい は しんせつ です。
Mr. Watt is kind.

ふじさん は たかい です。
Mount Fuji is high.

Use [です] when it is a positive sentence and not in the past form

Negatives :
Adjectives ending [な] omit [な] adding [じゃありません] or [ではありません], tailed adjectives [い] then remove [い] add [くないです]
For example :
あそこ は しずか じゃ / では ありません。
It’s not quiet over there.

このほん は おもしろくないです。
This book is not good.

The negatives form of [いいです] is [よくないです]

When changing to the question form, just like noun and verb sentences, we add [か] to the end of the adjective sentence. When answering, use the adjectives in the question to answer but not [そうです] or [そうじゃありません]
For example :
ペキンは さむいですか。
Is Beijing cold?

Yes, there is cold.

びわこ の みず は きれいですか。
Is Lake Biwa clean?

No, not clean.

3. Adjectives ending な / い + Nouns
Adjectives are placed before the nouns to add meaning to that noun

The adjective な stays the same な and then add the noun after it
ワットせんせい は しんせつな せんせいです。
Mr. Watt is a good teacher

The adjective い stays the same い and then add the noun after it
ふじさん は たか)い やまです。
Mount Fuji is a high mountain

4. とても and あまり
[とても] and [あまり] are degree adverbs. They are preceded by adjectives to complement the adjectives.

Used in affirmative sentences, and to mean “very”
これ は とても ゆうめいな えいがです。
This is a very famous movie.

Used in negative sentences, which means “not very ~”
シャンハイ は あまり さむくないです。
Shanghai is not very cold.

5. The noun + は + どうですか
Meaning: What does it look like
Usage: to ask for impressions, opinions about an object, a place, a person … that the listener knows, has visited, or met
For example :
にほん の せいかつ は どうですか。
How is life in Japan?

Life in Japan is fun

6. Noun 1 + は + どんな Noun 2 ですか
Usage: when the speaker wants the listener to describe and explain about N1. N2 is a broader noun that covers N1. The word to ask どんな always comes before the noun.
For example :
ならは どんなまちですか。
What kind of city is Nara?

Is an old city

7. Question 1 が, Question 2
Meaning: But
Usage: Used to combine 2 sentences into 1
For example :
Japanese food is delicious, but expensive

8. どれ
Meaning: Which one
Usage: ask the listener to choose or point out an object from two or more objects in question.
For example :
Which one is Mr. Miller’s umbrella?

The green one.

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