Minna no Nihongo grammar lesson 49, we will learn about honorifics. Specifically, we will see what honorifics are, how many types and how to use them.
A way of showing respect to the listener or the speaker
The use of honorifics depends on three factors:
– If the speaker has status or age lower than the listener, he or she must use honorifics to show respect to the listener
– If the speaker is not very familiar with the listener as he first met, the speaker uses honorific language to show respect to the listener
– Internal and external relations Internal relationships refer to people who belong to a certain group (family, company, etc.), external relationships are people who are not in those groups. When the speaker speaks to an outsider about a person in the same group as him, then the person in question has the same position as the speaker even though the group is in a higher position.
2. Types of honorifics
There are 3 types of honorifics:
– そんけいご : respectful speech
– けんじょうご : humble language
– ていねいご : be polite
3. Respectful speech (そんけいご)
The expression used to show the respect of the speaker to the listener or the talkee. This expression is used when talking about objects or events related to the listener
How to divide the verb
Group 1 verb:
Convert the last sound sequence [い] to the sound sequence [あ] add [れる]
|Verb form verb||Respectful speech|
Group 2 verb:
Add [ら れ る] to after the verb
たべる ーーー＞ たべられる
みる ーーー＞ みられる
しかる ーーー＞ しかられる
Group 3 verb:
きる ーーー＞ きられる
する ーーー＞ される
お verb form ます に なります
This expression is more respectful than the above. For the verb form ます with 1 syllable or in group 3, do not use this method
しゃちょうは もうおかえりに なりました
The director is already gone
The special honorifics
Verb form ます + ください
Usage: When asking someone to do something, we use this expression to show respect.
Please come in from the other side
Note: Do not use this expression with verbs special honorifics. However, for [めしあがります], we can say [おめしあがりください] (please use) and [ごらんになります] is [ごらんください] (please)
When we add [お] with pure Japanese words or [ご] with words that have Chinese origin before a part of nouns, adjectives and adverbs, they become honorifics.
Example: [お] Noun: おくに, おなまえ, おしごと
Adjective な : おげんき, おじょうず, おひま
Adjective い : おいそがしい, おわかい
Noun: ごかぞく, ごいけん, ごりょこう
Adjective tail な : ごねっしん、ごしんせつ
Adjective tail い : ごじゆうに
4. Honorific and type of sentences
Honorifics are not only polite but Regular form. When we put the regular form at the end of the sentence, the sentence will become the regular form. Sentences like this often appear when the speaker talks to his best friend about someone that he wants to use respectful expressions to show respect for.
what time hours manager will come
5. Consistency of using honorifics in sentences
When using honorifics, you should not use only a part of sentences but should use other words to ensure the consistency of using honorifics.
The manage wife also goes golf with
When you want to say politely, the verb form て is also transformed into the verb form まして. In sentences to ensure consistency, then the verb [～まして] is often used
Last night Hans had a fever, this morning the temperature was no reduction