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20 Basic Japanese grammar structures

20 Basic Japanese grammar structures
Japanese Sentence Structure (Japanese Grammar)
Here are 20 basic Japanese grammatical structures commonly used in daily communication.

1. __ は__: then; is; was; in
N1 は__ です : is the verb “to be”
N1 は N2です: N1 is N2.

Example:
私は日本の料理が好きです
Watashi wa Nihon no ryōri ga sukidesu
I like Japanese food.

2. __で + V : At, in, because, equal to, with (period time).

This structure describes where the act takes place, the cause of the action, the method – the method – the means. Also used to describe structures, objects – things made of any material.

Example:
駅で新聞を買います
Eki de shinbun o kaimasu
I buy newspaper at the station

3. __ に/ へ + V : indicates direction, place, time
The particle に and へ translate to “at time”, “in”.

Example:
彼は日本へ留学しました
Kare wa Nihon e ryūgaku shimashita
He studied abroad in japan

Note: The particle へ is pronounced え (this is a word with a different pronunciation than the writing method)

4. __ に、__ : at; just time

Example:
6時に起きます
6-Ji ni okimasu
I wake up at 6 o’clock.

5. __ を+ V : The narrative indicates the object of the action. Often the subject is human, animal.

Example:
日本語を勉強します
Nihongo o benkyō shimasu
I study Japanese.

6. __ と+ V : Do something with someone

Example:
同僚とアメリカへ出張します
Dōryō to Amerika e shutchō shimasu
I will be traveling to work in the US with my colleagues.

7. __と__: and

N1 と N2 translates as noun 1 and noun 2.

Example:
野菜と肉を食べます
Yasai to niku o tabemasu
I eat vegetables and meat.

8. __ が__ : but. Used to connect two opposing sides or use in sentences when disturbing others. “Sorry,__ can __?”

Example 1:
タイ料理はおいしいですが、辛いです
Tai ryōri wa oishīdesuga, tsuraidesu
Thai food is delicious but spicy

Example 2:
すみませんが、手伝ってもらえませんか
Sumimasen ga, tetsudatte moraemasen ka
Excuse me, can you help me

9. __ から__ まで : from __ to __

Example:
9時から午後 6 時まで働きます
9-Ji kara gogo 6-ji made hatarakimasu
I work from 9am to 6pm.

10. あまり__ ない : not ___ very . Notifying or stating the nature and action “not __ very ”

Example:
今日の天気はあまり寒くないです
Kyō no tenki wa amari samukunaidesu
The weather today is not very cold

11. V + ませんか?: Are you __ with me ?. This is a inviting, soliciting, and consulting someone about something.

Example:
いっしょに食べませんか。
Issho ni tabemasen ka.
Are you going to eat with me?

12. __ があります : There is something somewhere. Here can be nouns indicating objects,

Example:
部屋にテレビがあります
Heya ni terebi ga arimasu
There is a television in the room.

13. __ がいます : There is __ somewhere.

Example:
いけにカエルがいます
Ike ni kaeru ga imasu
In the pond there is a frog

14. __ ましょう : “Let’s do what”. Invite others to join, do what.

Example:
ちょっと休みましょう
Chotto yasumimashou
Let’s rest a little

15. V + ないてください : please / don’t / don’t do something. This is a sample of a polite and advising command.

Example:
病院でタバコを吸わないでください
Byōin de tabako o suwanaide kudasai
Do not smoke in the hospital

16. V + なければなりません : What must do/ What must you do

Example:
薬を飲まなければなりません
Kusuri o nomanakereba narimasen
I have to take medicine.

17. __ ないといけない : What must you do

Example:
留学するなら、日本語を勉強しないといけない。
Ryūgaku surunara, nihongo o benkyō shinaito ikenai.
If you plan to study abroad, you must learn Japanese.

18. __ だけ : Only

Example:
このクラスは日本人学生だけです
Kono kurasu wa nihonjin gakusei dakedesu
This class is only filled with Japanese students

19. N1 は N2 より A : compare

N1 + A (adjective) than N2

Example:
日本はタイより寒いです
Nihon wa Tai yori samuidesu
Japan is colder than Thailand

20. V + ている : What are you doing, just the action going on.

Example:
日本語を勉強している
Nihongo o benkyō shite iru
I’m learning Japanese.

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