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Minna No Nihongo Lesson 9 Grammar

Minna No Nihongo Lesson 9 Grammar

1. The noun + が + あります / わかります
Meaning: Yes (possessive) / understand something
Usage: The auxiliary verb with the verb [あります/わかります] is [が] to indicate the subject of the action
 [あります] indicates ownership, use with objects, not on people or animals
For example :
わたしは あたらしい かばんが あります。
I have a new briefcase.

わたしは にほんごがわかります。
I understand Japanese

2. Noun + が + すきです / きらいです/ じょうずです / へたです
Meaning: Like / hate / be good / bad at something
Usage: adjectives like [すきです / きらいです/ じょうずです / へたです] also use the adverb [が] For example :
わたしのともだちは ぶたにく が きらいです。
My friend does not like pork

わたしは にほんご が へたです。
I’m not good (least) in Japanese

3. どんな + Noun
Usage: ask for the specific name of an object or something in a larger category
For example :
どんな のみものがすきですか。
Which drink do you like?

ジュースがすきです。
I like fruit juice

4. よく / だいたい / たくさん / すこし / あまり / ぜんぜん
How to use:
Adverbs precede the verb / adjective to indicate their level (substance)
よく わかります Understand much
だいたい わかります In general
すこし わかります Understand a little
あまり わかります I don’t get it
ぜんぜん わかります Absolutely not understand

Adverbs precede the verb / adjective to indicate their level (quantity)
たくさん あります There are many
すこし あります There are few
あまり あります Not very much
ぜんぜん あります Absolutely not available

For example:
にほんごが だいたい わかります。
I know Japanese just like that

ぶんぽうが あまりわかりません。
I don’t know much grammar.

5. Question 1, から verse 2
Meaning: Because
Usage: Used to combine 2 sentences. verse 1 indicates the reason for verse 2
For example :
じかんがありませんから、ほんをよみません
Because I don’t have time, I don’t read books

You can also say sentence 2 first, then say sentence 1 with followed [から]

まいあさしんぶんをよみますか?
Do you read the newspaper every morning?

いいえ、よみません。じかんがありませんから。
No, I do not read. Because there is no time.

6. どうして
Meaning: Why
Usage: Used to ask the reason, and when answering we add [から] to the end of the sentence
For example :
どうしてきょう は はやく かえりますか ?
Why did you come home so early today?

ようじがありますから。
Because I have some work.

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