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Minna No Nihongo Lesson 37 Grammar

Minna no Nihongo Grammar Lesson 37 today will learn passive language. Along with verb conjugation, we also learn different passive phrases in Japanese.

1. How to create passive verbs
Group 1 verb:
Change from column [い] to column [あ] + [れます]

Verbs Passive verbs
ます かれます
ます かれます
およます およがれます
ます まれます
あそます そばれます
ます たれます
ます られます
ます われます
はなます はなされます

Group 2 verb:
Replace [ます] with [られます] Example:
みます ーーー> みられます
しらべます ーーー> しらべられます
ほめます ーーー> ほめられます

Group 3 verb:
きます ーーー> こられます
します ーーー> されます

2. The noun 1 + は + the noun 2 に + The passive verb
Meaning: The noun 1 is / is noun to do something
For example:
わたしは ぶちょうに ほめられました
I was praised by the minister

わたしはいぬにかまられました
I was bitten by a dog

3. Noun 1 + は + noun 2 に + Noun 3 を Passive verb
Example:
わたしは だれか に あし を ふまれました
I was stepped on by someone foot

わたしはぶちょうにしごとを たのまれました
I was asked by the minister to work

わたしはははにまんがの ほん をすてられました
I was dumped comic books by my mother

Note:
This sentence pattern is when the person who receives the behavior feels annoying, so we cannot use it if the recipient thanks the behavior done by person 2. In this case, we have to use [~てもらいます]

Example:
わたしは ともだちに じてんしゃをしゅうりして もらいました
I had my friend fix my bike

4. The noun / + passive verb
Usage: When talking about certain things and not necessarily mention the object of the behavior, we leave “things” or “mastery in order and are indicated by passive verbs.
For example:
フランスでにほんのふるいえがはっけんされました
An ancient Japanese painting found in France

にほんのくるまはせかいじゅうへゆしゅっされています
Japanese cars are exported around the world

5. Noun 1 は Noun 2 によって + Passive verb
Meaning: The noun 1 is made or brightened by the noun 2
For example:
[げんじものがたり] は むらさきしきぶ に よって かかれました
The Genji legend was written by Murasaki shikibu

でんわ はグラハム・ベルによって はつめいされました
The phone was invented by Graham.Bell

6. Noun
Usage: When we talk about producing an object, we use [] on materials and [] on materials
For example:
ビールはむぎからつくられます
Beer is made from barley

むかしにほんのいえはきでつくられました
In the past, houses in Japan were made of wood

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