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Minna No Nihongo Lesson 7 Grammar

Minna No Nihongo Lesson 7 Grammar
Lesson 7 grammar related to auxiliary words [で], verbs [あげます], [もらいます] and sample sentences [もう… しました].

1. Noun (tool / medium) + で + Verb
Meaning: Doing something with what
Usage: The adjective 「で」 is used to indicate the means or method of doing something
For example :
はしでたべます。
I eat rice with chopsticks

にほんごでレポートをかきます。
I write the report in Japanese

2. “Word / sentence” は ~ごでなんですか
Meaning: What is the word / sentence in tiếng
Usage: used to ask how a word, a phrase or a sentence is spoken in another language
For example:
[ありがとう」 はえいごでなんですか。
[ありがとう 」 What is in English?
[Thank You] で す。
It’s “Thank You”

3. The noun (person) に あげます
Meaning: Give / give to someone
You can also use other verbs like [かします], [おしえます], [おくります], [でんわをかけます]
Usage: We put the adjective 「に」 after these nouns to indicate the object that receives the action
For example:
やまださんはきむらさんにはなをあげました。
Mr. Yamada gave flowers to Kimura-sensei

イーさんにほんをかしました。
I lent Miss Lee a book

For verbs [おくります], [でんわをかけます], the subject is not only a person but also a place. In that case, besides the auxiliary 「に」 we can also use the auxiliary [へ 」
For example :
かいしゃへでんわをかけます。
I called the company

4. The noun (person) に もらいます
Meaning: Received from whom
You can also use other verbs like [かります], [ならいます]
Usage: We put the adjective 「に」 after these nouns to indicate action from the recipient
For example :
きむらさんはやまださんにはなをもらいます。
Kimura received the flower from Mr. Yamada

カリナさんにCDをかりました。
I borrowed the CD from Ms. Karina

We can use the expression 「から」 instead of 「に」, especially when the partner is not a person but an organization (such as a company or a school), it is not an option to use 「に」but to use 「から 」
For example :
きむらさんはやまださんからはなをもらいます。
Kimura received the flower from Mr. Yamada

ぎんこうからおかねをかりました。
I borrowed money from the bank.

5. もう Verb ました
Meaning: Did something
If in the question, it will mean Did not do anything
How to answer the question:
たい 、 もう Verb ました
Yes, did … already

いいえ、まだです
Not yet

For example :
もうにもつをおくりましたか。
Did you send your stuff?

はい、「もう」 おくりました
Okay, I sent it

いいえ、まだです。
No, I haven’t sent it yet

When the answer to this sample question is negative, we do not use it (Verb ませんでした). The reason is because (verb ませんでした) means that someone has not done something in the past and does not mean that he has not done it.

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