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Minna No Nihongo Lesson 39 Grammar

Minna no Nihongo grammar lesson 39, we will learn more ways to say the cause with the use of both equivalent and different depending on the situation. Besides, we also learn the sentence pattern [とちゅうで], this is a common sentence pattern that can be used both in written and spoken texts.

1. Verb / adjective / noun + て / で, ~
How to use :
Causes only, the following is the result of the first (cause).

How to divide verbs, adjectives, and nouns:
– Verb
Assert: verb form て, ~
Negative: verb form ない なくて,~

– Adjective
adjective tail い: remove [い] add [くて]

adjective tail な: remove [な] add [で]

– Noun
Add [で]

Use in the following cases :
– Adjectives, verbs express the feeling, mood
Example:
ニュースをきいて、びっくりしました
I was surprised to hear the news

かそくにあえなくて、さびしいです
Can’t met the family, so I sad

– Verbs indicate ability, state
Example:
どようびは つごうがわるくて、いけません
I can’t go because Saturday is busy

はなしがふくざつで、あまりわかりませんでした
I don’t really get it because the story is complicated

– Situation in the past
Example:
じこがあって、バスが おくれてしまいました
Because of an accident, the bus was late

じゅぎょうにおくれて、せんせいにしかられました
Because I was late for class, I was scolded by the teacher

The following situations can not use the sentence pattern:
– When the following clause has intentional content, then the previous clause cannot use the [て], instead using [から]

Example:
あぶないですから、きかいにさわらないで ください
Because dangerous, please do not touch into the machine.
あぶなくて、きかいに さわらないで ください (Wrong)

– When the previous clause and the next clause of the sentence are related in terms of timing or in other words, events of the preceding clause have first, events of the latter clause have later, we cannot use [て] but Must use [か ら]

Example:
あした かいぎが ありますから、きょう じゅんびしなければ なりません
Because tomorrow meeting so have to prepare today
あした かいぎが あって、きょう じゅんびしなければなりません (Wrong)

2. The noun + で
Usage: When indicating the causes due to nouns indicating natural phenomena or events such as じこ (accident), じしん (earthquake), かじ (fire), etc.,
Example:
じこで でんしゃが とまりました
accidents caused trams stop running

ゆきで しんかんせんが おくれました
Snow falling caused the Shinkansen train to be late

Note: You can not use form this sentence if clause after the exam deliberately
Example:
びょうきで あした かいしゃを やすみたいです (wrong)
Because I am sick then I want to quit work tomorrow

3. Regular form + の で, …
Meaning: Because
Usage:
Like [~ から], [~ ので] indicates cause and reason
While [~から] emphasizes cause and subjective reason , [~ので] is a way of expression and presentation. objectivity on the relationship between cause and outcome according to natural course
* Where regular nouns have to be replaced [な] with [だ ]

Example:
きぶんがわるいので、おさきに かえっても いいですか
Because I feel uncomfortable, can I go first?

バスが なかなか きなかったので、だいがくにおくれました
Because the bus yet to come, then I was late to school

Note:
Due to the expression of gentle, objectively should not be used to command, be prohibited in the following proposition
Example:
あぶないから、きかいにさわるな
Because dangerous, forbidden to touch the machine
あぶないので、きかいにさわるな (Wrong)

If you want to say it more politely, you can connect [の] with polite form
Example:
レポートを かかなければなりませんので、きょうは はやく かえります。
Because I have to write a report, then I’ll be leaving today

4. と ち ゅ う で
Meaning: On the way …
Usage: Noun の / The verb in the form of the verb + とちゅうで
Example:
じつは くるとちゅうで じこがあってので、ばすがおくれてしまったんです
The fact is that on the way there was an accident so the bus was late

マラトンのとちゅうで きぶんがわるくなりました
On the marathon track, I did not feel well

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