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Minna No Nihongo Lesson 3 Grammar

The grammar is about the great points related to [ここ], [そこ], [あそこ] and [どこ]. In addition, we also learned more about the uses of [dùng] to talk about the origin of something and the extremely popular communication sentence pattern [そですか].

1. ここ / そこ / あそこ は N (location) です
Meaning: This place / that / that place is N (location).
[ここ] This place (near the speaker)
[そこ] That place (near the listener)
[あそこ] There (away from the speaker and the listener)
Usage: recommend, show someone somewhere

For example:
ここは うけつけ です。
This is the reception desk

To be polite and respectful to the person listening, we can use the following words with the same meaning:
[こちら] replaces [ここ] [そちら] replaces [そこ] [あちら] replaces [あそこ]

2. N は どこ / どちら ですか。
Meaning: Where is N?
[どこ], [どちら] all mean where, but [どちら] is more polite.
Usage: Ask what or who where
N can be mixed or human [ここ], [そこ], [あそこ]

For example:
トイレは どこ / どちら ですか
Where’s the toilet ?

ミラーさんは どこ / どちら ですか。
Where is Mr. Miller?

ここは どこ / どちら ですか。
Where is this ?

3. N1 は N2 (LOCATION) です
Meaning: N1 is at N2 (location)
N1 is a thing, a person [ここ], [そこ], [あそこ] Usage: Indicates who or what is where

For example:
トイレは あちらです。
The toilet is over there.

ミラーさんは じむしょです。
Mr. Miller is in the office.

ここは きょうしつです。
This is the classroom.

4. N1 の N2
Meaning: N1 of / from N2
N1 is a country name or a company name, N2 is a product.
Usage: Talk about the origin, the origin of a product or a certain object

For example:
IMC のコンピューターです。
Computer of the IMC company.

To ask questions about the origin, origin of a certain product or item, we use [どこの] + products:

For example:
これはどこのワインですか?
What wine is this?

イタリアのワインです。
Italian Wine.

5. お国はどちらですか
Meaning: Which country are you from?
Use [どちら] to be polite in speech
Usage: To ask someone’s country

For example:
お 国 は ど ち ら で す か?
Where are you from?

日本です。
Japan.

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