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Minna No Nihongo Lesson 11 Grammar

Minna No Nihongo Lesson 11 Grammar

Lesson 11 we will learn how to use the word count of objects and each different group of objects such as machines, thin objects, books, glasses, … will have different ways of calling counting units.

1. Counting objects
ひ と つ 、 ふ た つ… と お is the common count for objects up to 10. From 11 used as the usual counting.
Counting auxiliaries: These words are placed after the number to count objects, people, etc.
人 (にん): count people (especially count 1, 2 users ひ と り, ふ た り)
番 (ばん): Used to count numbers
枚 (まい): used to count thin objects (stamps, shirts, …)
台 (だい): Used to count machines and vehicles
冊 (さつ): used to count books
着 (ちゃく): Used to count clothes
個 (こ): Used to count small objects
足 (そく): Used to count shoes, socks
軒 (けん): Used to count houses
階 (かい 、がい): Used to count the floors of a house
本 (ほ ん 、ぼ ん 、ぽん): used to count elongated objects
杯 (は い 、ばい 、ぱい): For drinking
匹 (ひき 、び き 、ぴき): Counting small animals
回 (かい) is used to count the number of times

2. How to use words
Usage: When the number associated with the unit suffix is ​​called the word quantity. Usually, the number of words is preceded by the verb that it modifies, unless that is the amount of time.
For example :
りんごを4つかいました。
Buy 4 apples

がいこくじんのがくせいがふたりいます。
There are 2 foreign students

3. How to ask the number of words
For things that count by [ひとつ、ふたつ,..], we use the question interrogation [いくつ] to ask
For example :
みかんをいくつかいましたか?
How many tangerines are you buying?

2つかいました。
2 sir!

For digits with a suffix indicating unit, we use [なん] + “suffix for unit” to ask
For example :
このかいしゃにがいこくじんがなんにんいますか?
How many foreigners are there in this company?

5にんいます
There are 5 people

4. どのくらい
Meaning: How long
Usage: Used to ask about the time period
* There are many ways to say time units (years (ねん), week (しゅうかん), date (にち), hours (じかん), minutes (ふん / ぶ ん),…
For example :
どのくらいにほんごをべんきょうしましたか?
How long have you been studying Japanese?

3ねんべんきょうました。
I learned 3 years already

[ぐらい] can be added after the word meaning “about”
きょうしつにがくせいが30にんぐらいいます.
In the classroom there are about 30 students

5. Amount of words (period of time) + に + ~ かい + Verb
Meaning: What to do for how many times over a period of time
Usage: Indicates the frequency when doing something
For example :
1かげつに3かいえいがをみます
I watch the movie 3 times a month

6. Amount of words / nouns + だけ
Meaning: only
Usage: placed after the noun or the number of words to express the meaning can not be more
[だけ] replaces the auxiliary expressions [を] and [が] For example :
わたしはやさいだけたべます。
I only eat vegetables

1じかんだけかかります。
It only takes an hour

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