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Minna No Nihongo Lesson 10 Grammar

Minna No Nihongo Lesson 10 Grammar

Lesson 10 briefly summarizes the grammar points related to [あります] and [います]

1. The noun + が + あります / います
Meaning: Yes, exist
How to use :
[あります] used when N is an object
[います] used when N is human and animal
For example :
わたしは あたらしいでんわ が あります。
I have a new phone.

いもうとが います。
I have a younger sister.

2. Noun 1 (location) + に + Noun 2 + が + あります / います
Meaning: Where there is anyone / what
Usage: The noun 1 is a great point of existence for noun 2 and is determined by the adverb [に] For example :
わたしのへやにつくえがあります。
In the room I have a table

じむしょにみらーさんがいます。
In the office is Mr. Miller

3. Noun 1 (place) に + なに/だれ + が ありますか / いますか
Meaning: Where there is anything or not
* [だれ] just go with [います] Usage: To ask what / what / who is in a specific location
For example :
にわに なにが ありますか。
What’s on the yard?

さくら)のきが あります。
There are cherry blossom trees.

きょうしつにだれが いますか。
Is there anyone in the classroom?

ゆきさんが います。
There you Yuki

4. Noun 1 は Noun 2 (location) に あります/います
Meaning: What / someone is in a certain place
Usage: indicates where the person or thing exists
For example:
たなかさんは じむしょに います。
Mr. Tanaka is in the office.

でんわは かばんに あります。
Phone in pair.

です is sometimes used as a substitute for positional verbs あります / います when those verbs have been spoken or identified.

たなかさんは じむしょです。
Mr. Tanaka is in the office

5. Noun 1 (object, person, place) の N2 (nouns indicating a position)
Usage: showing position correlation such as : うえ (top) 、した (below) 、まえ (previous) 、うしろ (after) 、あい だ (inside, middle) 、 そと (outside) 、 ひだり (left) 、みぎ (right) 、ちかく (near) 、となり (beside),…
For example :
つくえのうえに はなが あります。
There are flowers on the table.

えきのまえに としょかん が あります。
There is a library in front of the station.

こうえんのちかくで ともだちにあいます。
I meet you near the park.

6. Noun 1 や Noun 2
Meaning: Noun 1 and noun 2
Usage: [や] is used to join nouns. Unlike [と] which lists whole things, [や] lists only 2 symbolic nouns.
For example :
つくえの上うえに ほん や ペンが あります。
On the table have there are books, pens, …

わたしのかばんなかに でんわや さいふが あります。
In my bag have there is my phone, wallet, …

7. Word / phrase ですか?
Usage: The adjective [か] in this case is used by the speaker to confirm something.
For example :
A: すみません、ユニューやストア は どこですか?
Sorry, where is Yunyuya supermarket?
B: ユニューやストアですか?あのビルのなかです。
Yunyuya Supermarket, right? In the building over there

8. チリソースはありませんか
Meaning: Do you have chili sauce
In the conversation of lesson 10 we will meet the sentence pattern [チリソースはありませんか]. In this sentence pattern, we do not use [あります], we must use [ありません] to take into account the non-response and to show the polite attitude of the speaker.

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